These test methods cover four macroscopic and five microscopic test methods (manual and image analysis) for describing the inclusion content of steel and procedures for expressing test results. Inclusions are characterized by size, shape, concentration, and distribution rather than chemical composition. Although compositions are not identified, microscopic methods place inclusions into one of several composition-related categories (sulfides, oxides, and silicates—the last as a type of oxide). These test methods cover a number of recognized procedures for determining the nonmetallic inclusion content of wrought steel. Macroscopic methods include macroetch, fracture, step-down, and magnetic particle tests. Microscopic methods include five generally accepted systems of examination. In these microscopic methods, inclusions are assigned to a category based on similarities in morphology and not necessarily on their chemical identity. Metallographic techniques that allow simple differentiation between morphologically similar inclusions are briefly discussed. While the methods are primarily intended for rating inclusions, constituents such as carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, borides, and intermetallic phases may be rated using some of the microscopic methods. In some cases, alloys other than steels may be rated using one or more of these methods; the methods will be described in terms of their use on steels.
KeywordsASTM E45 - Crude/Semi-Finished Products - Fractography - Fracture Test - Inclusions - Macroetch Test - Metallography - Optical Microscopy - Photomicrography - Wrought Steel - X-Ray Diffraction Technique
ICS CODE77.040.99 (Other methods of testing metals)
UNSPSC CODE11101704 (Steel)
ASTM E45-18a, Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org