The SEM can be used to define and compare the layer structure of multilayered samples, the structure of individual layers, the bulk elemental composition of individual layers, and the elemental composition of individual particulate components within paints and coatings. The test methods described may have some limitations. They include the inability to detect elements in trace concentrations, the need for a conductive coating of the sample, the inability to remove a sample from most embedding materials after analysis, and the discoloration of materials by irradiation.
KeywordsCoatings - EDS - Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry - Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy - Forensic Paint Examination - Paint Analysis - Paint Related Coatings - Paints - Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM
ICS CODE07.140 (Forensic science); 17.180.30 (Optical measuring instruments); 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)
UNSPSC CODE41111720 (Scanning electron microscopes); 41115403 (Spectrometers)
ASTM E2809-13, Standard Guide for Using Scanning Electron Microscopy/X-Ray Spectrometry in Forensic Paint Examinations, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org